Fishing and farming methods

Hooks, lines and rods

Hooks and lines are gear where the fish is attracted by a natural or artificial bait (lures) placed on a hook fixed to the end of a line or snood, on which they get caught. Hooks or metallic points (jigs) are also used to catch fish by ripping them when they pass in its range of movement. Hook and line units may be used singly or in large numbers. These gears are hauled by hand in small-scale fisheries whilst in large-scale fisheries vessels are usually provided with powered line haulers, automatic jiggers, line reels, line coilers and automatic hook handling and baiting systems. Hooks and lines are generally operated in a very wide range of depths, either in inland and sea waters. With line fishing it is possible to catch fish on rough ground, even in their hiding places between the rocks. Several fishing methods using hooks and lines are listed below.

Pole and line

In pole and line fishery, fishing rods are used, with hooks that can be baited. The rods are operated manually or mechanically. This technique makes it possible to fish for species that are attracted to the surface by bait or light. Target species include tuna, mackerel, salmon and sea bass. Fishing with pole and line has limited influence on the environment. Jigging is fishing with lines with lures. The lines are, manually or mechanically, moved up and down to imitate prey.

Trolling

Trolling,-variantie-op-handlijnvisserij

Trolling is a fishing method mainly used to catch several species of tuna. A trolling line has baited hooks or lures. The trolling lines are drawn through the water by a ship. The lines are close to the surface or at a certain depth in the water column. The ships used for trolling vary from small, open boats to large ships of 25-30 that can directly freeze the catch on board. Depending on the size of the ship, up to 2o lines can be cast simultaneously. Tuna are attracted by the bait and attack from beneath. They can even breach the water surface. The tuna are caught by the hooks and can be hauled. Trolling is a selective method with little bycatch. The catch can be checked on boards and thrown back if needed. This method doesn’t damage the fish which is good for the quality.

Drifting longlines

A drifting longline consists of a mainline kept near the surface or at a certain depth by means of regularly spaced floats and with relatively long snoods with baited hooks, evenly spaced on the mainline. Drifting longlines may be of considerable length (40-100 km). Some drifting longlines are set vertically, each line hanging from a float at the surface. This fishery targets pelagic species (like tuna and swordfish). A large problem in the drifting longline fishery (especially in tropical areas) is the bycatch of protected species like sea turtles, rays, sharks and sea birds, and problems with lost gear that keeps fishing (ghost fishing) There is relatively low fuel use and low impact on the seabed.

Set longlines

A set longline consists of a mainline and snoods with baited (occasionally unbaited) hooks at regular intervals and which is set, in general, on or near the bottom. Its length can range from few hundred meters in coastal fisheries to more than 50 km in large scale mechanized fisheries. Target species are demersal species (like halibut and ling). A large problem in the longline fishery (especially in tropical areas) is the bycatch of protected species like sea turtles, rays, sharks and sea birds, and problems with lost gear that keeps fishing (ghost fishing) There is relatively low fuel use and low impact on the seabed.

 

Handlines

Handlines is a general term for fishing rods, jigs, and trolling lines. Jigging uses lines with lures that are moved up and down to resemble prey. Handlines are often used on a small scale en reasonably selective. Unwanted bycatch can be thrown back immediately with a high survivalrate. It is more selective and small-scale than longline fishery. There is no impact on the seabed, low fuel use and potential bycatch can be discarded alive.

Handlines mechanized

Handlines is a general term for fishing rods, jigs, and trolling lines. Jigging uses lines with lures that are moved up and down to resemble prey. Mechanized jigs are often used to catch squid and cuttle fish. Handlines are often used on a small scale en reasonably selective. Unwanted bycatch can be thrown back immediately with a high survivalrate. It is more selective and small-scale than longline fishery. There is no impact on the seabed, low fuel use and potential bycatch can be discarded alive.

 

Harpoon

Harpoons thrown by hand are used on a small scale and are selective. They do not damage the seabed.

Share